COVID- 19 and abnormalities of some biochemical tests: review
Keywords:COVID-19, Liver function, lipid profile
Coronaviruses are a group of viruses proven to affect both respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases in varied animal and human organisms. More than 100 million people worldwide are currently believed to have been infected and more than two million people have died and induced clinical syndrome of coronavirus disease in 2019.It's (COVID-19).
The purpose of this analysis was to determine whether multiple biochemical test derangements are a common feature in patients with reported COVID-19 infection, to determine the relationship between the deranged liver test and lipoprotein with COVID-19 outcome or severity, and to determine whether liver failure or dyslipidemia is a common feature of COVID-19.
This review was conducted using the Web of Science, PubMed and Scopus databases. English case-series and cross-sectional papers were considered, describing the currently offered findings on the relationship between certain biomedical tests and COVID-19 infections. To summarize, COVID-19 may have a severe tendency in older patients biochemical indexes (decrease albumin, decrease LDL-c, HDL-c, and TC, increased CRP, increased AST, increased LDH and CK) could be used as indicators to predict the severity of the disease.
Q. Cai, D. Huang, H. Yu, Z. Zhu, Z. Xia, Y. Su, Z. Li, et al., “COVID-19: Abnormal liver function tests”. J Hepatol, vol. 73(3), pp. 566–574, 2020.
Y. Wei, W. Zeng, X. Huang, J. Li, X. Qiu, H. Li, et al., “Clinical characteristics of 276 hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 in Zengdu District, Hubei Province: a single-center descriptive study”. BMC Infect Dis, vol. 20(1), pp. 549, 2020.
F, Zheng, W Tang, H Li, Y-X Huang, Y-L Xie and Z-G Zhou, “Clinical characteristics of 161 cases of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Changsha”. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci, vol. 24(6), pp. 3404-3410, 2020.
J.G. Jang, J. Hur, E.Y. Choi, K.S. Hong, W. Lee and J.H. Ahn, “Prognostic Factors for Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Daegu, Korea”. J Korean Med Sci, vol. 35(23), pp. e209, 2020.
M. Dreux, V.L. Dao, J. Fresquet, M. Guérin, Z. Julia, G. Verney, et al. “Receptor complementation and mutagenesis reveal SR-BI as an essential HCV entry factor and functionally imply its intra- and extra-cellular domains”. PLoS Pathog, vol. 5(2), pp. e1000310, 2009.
G. Meher, S. Bhattacharjya and H. Chakraborty. “Membrane Cholesterol Modulates Oligomeric Status and Peptide-Membrane Interaction of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus”. Fusion Peptide, J Phys Chem B, vol. 123(50), pp.10654-62, 2019.
Q. Wu, L. Zhou, X. Sun, Z. Yan, C. Hu, J. Wu, et al. “Altered Lipid Metabolism in Recovered SARS Patients Twelve Years after Infection”. Sci Rep, vol. 7(1), pp. 9110, 2017.
N.T. Funderburg and N.N. Mehta ”Lipid Abnormalities and Inflammation in HIV Inflection”. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep, pp. 13(4), pp. 218-25, 2016.
T. Chida, K. Kawata, K. Ohta, E. Matsunaga, J. Ito, S. Shimoyama, et al., “Rapid Changes in Serum Lipid Profiles during Combination Therapy with Daclatasvir and Asunaprevir in Patients Infected with Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1b”. Gut Liver, vol. 12(2), pp. 201-7, 2018.
X. Wei, W. Zeng , J. Su , H. Wan, X. Yu , X. Cao , et al., “Hypolipidemia is associated with the severity of COVID-19”. J Clin Lipidol, vol. 14(3), pp. 297-304, 2020.
J. Sun, Z. Chen, P. Nie, H. Ge, L. Shen, F. Yan, et al., “Lipid Profile Features and Their Associations With Disease Severity and Mortality in Patients With COVID-19”. Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine, vol. 7, 584987, 2020.
T. Sébastien, C. De Tymowski, M. Assadi, N. Zappella, S. Jean-Baptiste, T. Robert, et al., “Lipoprotein concentrations over time in the intensive care unit COVID-19 patients: Results from the ApoCOVID study”. PLoS One, vol. 15(9), pp. e0239573, 2020.
N.A. Taborda, Y. Blanquiceth, S. Urcuqui-Inchima, E. Latz, J.C. Hernandez, High-Density Lipoproteins Decrease Proinflammatory Activity and Modulate the Innate Immune Response, J. Interferon Cytokine Res. 39(12) (2019) 760-70.
S.G. Thacker, A. Zarzour, Y. Chen, M.S. Alcicek, L.A. Freeman, D.O. Sviridov, et al., “High-density lipoprotein reduces inflammation from cholesterol crystals by inhibiting inflammasome activation”. Immunology, vol. 149(3), pp. 306-19, 2016.
T. Kelesidis, J.S. Currier, D. Huynh, D. Meriwether, C. Charles-Schoeman, S.T. Reddy, et al., “A biochemical fluorometric method for assessing the oxidative properties of HDL”. J Lipid Res, vol. 52(12), pp. 2341-51, 2011.
T. Kelesidis, N. Jackson, G.A. McComsey, X. Wang, D. Elashoff, M.P. Dube, et al., “Oxidized lipoproteins are associated with markers of inflammation and immune activation in HIV-1 infection”. AIDS, vol. 30(17), pp. 2625-2633, 2016.
D.A. Zidar, S. Juchnowski, B. Ferrari, B. Clagett, H.A. Pilch-Cooper, S. Rose, et al. “Oxidized LDL levels are increased in HIV infection and may drive monocyte activation”. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. Vol. 69, pp. 154–160. 2015.
S. Tian, W. Hu, L. Niu, H. Liu, H. Xu and X. Shu-Yuan, “Pulmonary pathology of early phase 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pneumonia in two patients with lung cancer”. J Thorac Oncol, vol. 15, pp. 700–704, 2020.
R. Graham, F.E. Donaldson and R.S. Baric, “A decade after SARS: strategies for controlling emerging coronaviruses”. Nat Rev Microbiol, vol. 11 pp. 836-848, 2013.
S. Wan, Y. Xiang, W. Fang, Y. Zheng, B. Li, Y. Hu, et al., “Clinical features and treatment of COVID-19 patients in northeast Chongqing”. J Med Virol, vol 92(7), pp. 797-806, 2020.
C. Qin, H. Minghan, Z. Ziwen, L. Yukun, “Alteration of lipid profile and value of lipids in the prediction of the length of hospital stay in COVID‐19 pneumonia patients”. Food Sci. Nutr, vol. 8, pp. 6144–6152, 2020.
H. Xu, L. Zhong, J. Deng, J. Peng, H. Dan, X. Zeng, et al., “High expression of ACE2 receptor of 2019-nCoV on the epithelial cells of oral mucosa”. Int J Oral Sci, vol. 12, pp. 8, 2020.
F. Xiao, M. Tang, X. Zheng, Y. Liu, X. Li and H. Shan, “Evidence for gastrointestinal infection of COVID-19”. Gastroenterology, vol. 158, pp. 1831-1833, 2020.
A.K. Schaefer, A. Arvind, P.P. Bloom and R.T. Chung, “Interrelationship between Coronavirus Infection and Liver Disease”. Clinical Liver Disease, vol. 15(5), 2020.
J. Gu, B. Han and J. Wang J, “COVID-19: gastrointestinal manifestations and potential fecal-oral transmission” Gastroenterology, vol. 158, pp. 1518-1519, 2020.
C. Tai-Nin, L. Kam-Cheong, H. Yao, T. Tak-Yin, C. Tat-Chong, Y. Yiu-Cheong, et al., “SARS-associated viral hepatitis caused by a novel coronavirus: report of three cases”. Hepatology, vol. 39, pp. 302-310, 2004.
D.E. Gordon, G.M. Jang, M. Bouhaddou, J.Xu, K. Obernier, K.M. White, et al., “A SARS-CoV-2 protein interaction map reveals targets for drug repurposing”. Nature, vol. 583(7816), pp. 459-468, 2020.
Y.Zhang, L. Zheng, L. Li, M. Zhao, J. Xiao and Q.Zhao, “Liver impairment in COVID-19 patients: A retrospective analysis of 115 cases from a single centre in Wuhan city, China”. Liver Int., vol. 40(9), pp. 2095-2103, 2020.
Y. Feng, Y. Ling, T. Bai, Y. Xie, J. Huang, J. Li, et al., “COVID-19 with Different Severities: A Multicenter Study of Clinical Features”. Am J Respir Crit Care Med., vol. 201(11), pp. 1380-1388, 2020.
H. Yue, X. Bai, J. Wang, Q. Yu, W. Liu, J. Pu, et al., “China Medical Treatment Expert Group for Covid-19. Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China”. N Engl J Med, vol. 382, pp. 1708-1720, 2020.
L. Xiaochen, S. Xu, M. Yu, K. Wang, Y. Tao, Y. Zhou, et al., “Risk factors for severity and mortality in adult COVID-19 inpatients in Wuhan”. J Allergy Clin Immunol, vol. 146(1), pp. 110-118, 2020.
W. Yaping, B. Liao, Y.Guo, F. Li, C. Lei, F. Zhang, et al., “Clinical Characteristics of Patients Infected With the Novel 2019 Coronavirus (COVID-19) in Guangzhou, China”. Open Forum Infect Dis, vol. 7(6), pp. ofaa187, 2020.
A. Gatta, A. Verardo and M. Bolognesi, “Hypoalbuminemia”. Intern Emerg Med, vol, 7(Suppl 3), pp. S193–9, 2012.
J.S.M. Peiris, S.T. Lai, L.L.M. Poon, Y. Guan, L.Y.C. Yam, W. Lim, et al., “SARS study group. Coronavirus as a possible cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome”. Lancet, vol. 361, pp. 1319–25, 2003.
A. Erez, O. Shental, J.Z. Tchebiner, M. Laufer-Perl, A. Wasserman, T. Sella, et al., “Diagnostic and prognostic value of very high serum lactate dehydrogenase in admitted medical patients”. Isr Med Assoc J. vol. 16, pp. 439-43, 2014.
P. Meraviglia, M. Schiavini, A. Castagna, P. Vigano, T. Bini, S. Landonio, et al., “Lopinavir/ritonavir treatment in HIV antiretroviral‐experienced patients: evaluation of risk factors for liver enzyme elevation”. HIV medicine, vol. 5(5), pp. 334-43, 2004.
J.A. Grace, C.B. Herath, K.Y. Mak, L.M. Burrell and P.W. Angus, “Update on new aspects of the renin–angiotensin system in liver disease: clinical implications and new therapeutic options”. Clinical science, vol. 123(4) pp. 225-39, 2012.
Z. Yafei, L. Zheng, L. Li, M. Zhao, J. Xiao and Q. Zhao, “Liver impairment in COVID-19 patients: A retrospective analysis of 115 cases from a single centre in Wuhan city, China”. Liver Int, vol. 40(9), pp. 2095-2103, 2020.
Y. Han, H. Zhang, S. Mu, W. Wei, C. Jin, C. Tong, et al., “Lactate dehydrogenase, an independent risk factor of severe COVID-19 patients: a retrospective and observational study”. Aging (Albany NY), vol. 12(12), pp. 11245-11258, 2020.
I. Hamming, W. Timens, M. Bulthuis, A. Lely, G. Navis and H. Goor, “Tissue distribution of ACE2 protein, the functional receptor for SARS coronavirus. A first step in understanding SARS pathogenesis”. J Pathol, vol. 203(2), pp. 631-7, 2004.
M.N. Bangash, J. Patel and D. Parekh, “COVID-19 and the liver: little cause for concern”. The Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol, Vol. 5(6), pp. 529-530, 2020.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Qubahan Academic Journal
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.