Effectiveness of the Spatial Domain Techniques in Digital Image Steganography


  • Rosshini Selvamani Faculty of Computing, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Malaysia;
  • Yusliza Yusoff Faculty of Computing, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Malaysia;




Digital steganography is a new and extremely demanding method for transmitting information securely over the internet while employing a covert device. Since its inception in the 1990s till the present, digital steganography has a lengthy history. Early steganography focused primarily on imperceptibility, security and embedding capacity. In addition to using statistics as a foundation, convolution neural networks (CNN), generative adversarial networks (GAN), coverless approaches, and machine learning are all used to construct steganographic methods. Robustness is becoming a crucial component of many innovative techniques. Spatial, Transform, and Adaptive domains serve as the understructure of those novel methods. This broadens the range of steganographic technique development and often concentrates the implementation of adaptive techniques. As a result, this study helps to analyze the fundamentals of image steganography, a comparative review on the spatial domain algorithms. As using evaluation tools is strongly tied to the effectiveness of steganography, this study also goes into great detail about its application. The purpose of this research is to determine the best and most effective algorithm among the three competitive spatial domain algorithms, which are Least Significant Bit (LSB), Optimum Pixel Adjustment Procedure (OPAP), and Pixel Value Differencing (PVD) which in regard demonstrated the efficacy of spatial domain algorithms.


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How to Cite

Selvamani, R., & Yusoff, Y. . (2024). Effectiveness of the Spatial Domain Techniques in Digital Image Steganography . Qubahan Academic Journal, 4(1), 341–350. https://doi.org/10.48161/qaj.v4n1a456